# Electrostatic Handwritten Notes

**Electric charges**

1 Understand the concept of electric charge and charge carriers

2 Understand the process of charging by friction and use the concept to explain the related day-to-day observations

3 Understand that, for any point outside a spherical conductor, the charge on the sphere may be considered to act as a point charge at its centre

4 State Coulomb’s law

5 Recall and use 𝐹 for the force between two point charges in free space or air

6 Compute the magnitude and direction of the net force acting at a point due to multiple charges

**Electric field:**

1 Describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force

2 Define electric field strength as a force per unit positive charge acting on a stationary point charge

3 Calculate forces on charges in uniform electric fields of known strength

4 Use 𝐸 strength of a point charge in free space or air

5 Illustrate the changes graphically in electric field strength with respect to distance from a point charge

6 Represent an electric field by means of field lines

7 Describe the effect of a uniform electric field on the motion of charged particles

8 Understand the concept of the electric flux of a surface

9 State Gauss law and apply it for a field of a charged sphere and for line charge

10 Understand that a uniform field exists between charged parallel plates and sketch the field lines

**The potential, potential difference, and potential energy**

1 Define potential at a point as the work done per unit positive charge in bringing a small test charge from infinity to the point

2 Use electron volt as a unit of electric potential energy

3 Recall and use 𝑉 for the potential in the field of a point charge

4 Illustrate the variation graphically in potential along a straight line from the source charge and understand that the field strength of the field at a point is equal to the negative of potential gradient at that point

5 Understand the concept of equipotential lines and surfaces and relate it to potential difference between two points

6 Recall and use 𝐸 to calculate the field strength of the uniform field between charged parallel plates in terms of potential difference and separation