Angiosperms ( Notes )


Angiosperms Notes 

Morphology of Flowering Plants

Angiosperms: All flower-bearing plants are called angiosperms.


1.     The angiosperms may be annuals, biennials, or perennials.

2.     They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees.

3.     Xylem consists of vessels, tracheid, xylem parenchyma, and fibers.

4.     They bare flowers for reproduction.

5.     Archegonia are absent.

6.     Endosperms are formed by triple fusion. Thus, it is a triploid structure.

(a)   Hydrophytes: Plants that grow in water or inadequate supply of water are called hydrophytes. e.g. Hydrilla, Nymphaea.

(b)   Mesophytes: Plants that grow on land under the average conditions of water and temperature are called mesophytes. E.g.: Mango tree, Mustard plant.

(c)   Xerophytes: plants that grow in dry conditions or in scarce water are called xerophytes. E.g.: Opuntia, Nerium.
The angiosperms are classified into two main groups,
i. Dicotyledons
ii. Monocotyledons

Differences between Dicots and monocots.



a.      Seeds contain two cotyledons.

b.      They are often insect-pollinated.

c.      The leaves show reticulate venation.

d.      They usually contain tap root systems.

e.      The leaves are dorsoventrally flattened.

a.      Seeds contain one cotyledon.

b.      They are Often water pollinated.

c.      The leaves show parallel venation.

d.      They usually contain adventitious root systems.

e.      The leaves are isobilateral.

Difference between Taproot and adventitious root.


Adventitious Root


a.     It is usually underground.

b.     It is the characteristic feature of the dicot plant.

c.     The primary root continues to grow and gives off lateral branches.

d.     It develops directly from the embryo and usually persists throughout life.

e.     It consists of a prominent main root that gives off many fine lateral branches.



a.     It may be underground or aerial.

b.     It is the characteristic features of the monocot

c.      The primary root stops growing and it replaced many thin roots.

d.     It develops from any part of the plant other than the embryo.

e.     It consists of a cluster of roots that may be from the same point.



Parts of Roots

The extreme part of a root is called the root tip. It consists of a large number of cells. It is called the zone of cell division.

Root hair is a part of a plant that observed water and minerals. The main function of the root cap is to protect the zone of cell division.

Shoot system

The system of a plant which of the row above the soil surface, grows towards light phototropism or negative geotropism is called shoot system.


-          Provides support to various parts of a plant like a stem, leaf, bud, flower, fruit, etc.

-          Shoot is generally green in color in the young consists of nodes and internodes.

-          Stem helps to transfer water and minerals from roots to leaves. It transfers food prepared in leaves to storage other growing parts.

-          Branches produce buds, leaves, flowers, fruits.
There are two types of bud. They are:
i)  Terminal bud
ii)   Axillary bud
a.   Vegetative bud
b.   Floral bud

Flower: It is the main reproduction part of the plant. It has an asexual and sexual reproductive organ.

Asexual Reproduction:

1.     Microspore: pollen grains (male gametes)

2.      Megaspores: ovule (ovum i.e. female gametes)

Modification of flowering plants

Modification of Roots: The normal tap root is modified to store the good material. It changes its shape and size due to the accumulation of food materials. This is called the modification of root.

Modification of taproot: it is the normal tap root modified to store the food materials. It changes its shape and size due to the accumulation of good materials. According to their shape, they are classified into following types.

-          Fasiform root

-          Napiform root

-          Conical root

-          Tuberous

Modification of adventitious root:

The adventitious roots are modified to perform various functions such as the storage of food, support, assimilation, and other important function.

1.     For storage of food:

a.     Tuberous root

b.     Annulate root

c.     Nodulated root

d.     Fasciculate root


2.     For mechanical support

a.     Prop root

b.     Stilt root

c.     Climbing root

The stem

The stem is the aerial part of the vascular plant, developing from the plumule and bears branches, leaves, and flowers. It is differentiated into nodes and internodes which may not be distinct in some cases.

The habit of the plant:

The nature of the stem is determined by the habitat of the plant. The plants are usually classified into different categories according to their life cycle habitat or their life cycle.
Herbs: a small plant with the soft or non-woody stem.e.g grass
Shrubs: a bushy perennial plant with a woody or nonwoody stem. Branches arise from the base e.g China rose.
Tree: a tall woody plant with a woody stem. Branches develop well above the ground level. E.g mango tree, peepal tree.
Annuals: plants that complete their life cycle in one year. E.g. rice, maize.
Perennials: plants that continue their growth for many years. Eg. Mango tree, apple tree, etc.

Modification of stem

1.     Underground modification: there are always thick and fleshy having a good deposition of good material in them. They are of the following types;

a.     Rhizome: it is a thick and fleshy underground stem, which grows horizontally near the soil surface. It contains dry scaly leaves at distinct nodes. It bears buds in axils of scaly leaves and a terminal bud. The buds serve for vegetative propagation. E.g. ginger, fern, mint etc.

b.     Tuber: swollen terminal portion of an underground stem is called a stores a large number of food materials in the form of starch. The stem tuber bears a number of nodes called eyes. Each eye bears a few buds.

c.     Corm: it is a short, vertical, fleshy underground stem with a flattened base. It is more or less round and bears several dry, thin scaly leaves. It has distinct nodes and internodes. The corm stores a large amount of food material. It bears an apical bud, which produces shoots with leaves and flowers. E.g. colocasia

d.     Bulb: it is a short underground shoot with many scaly leaves. The food material Is stored in the scaly leaves.


2. Sub-Aerial modification: sub- aerial stems are found in plants with weak stems in which branches lie horizontally on the ground. They are of the following types.

a.     Runner: it is a long, slender, prostate stem with long or short internodes. e.g. mint, grasses, oxalis etc.

b.     Stolon: it is a long, slender, lateral branch that arises from the base of the black jasmine etc.


c.     Sucker: an obliquely upward growing branch arises from the underground part of the stem and root.

d.     Offset: A horizontal, short, more or less thickened stem. It originates from the axil of a leaf, extends for a short distance and then produces a cluster of leaves above and adventitious roots below. e.g. Pistia, water hyacinth etc.


3.     Aerial modification:

a.     Phylloclade: it is the characteristic feature of some xerophytes plants. It is a short, green, flattened, or cylindrical branch. It carries out photosynthesis and stores water for the plant. It contains several nodes and internodes. The leaves are modified into spines or scales to reduce evaporation. e.g. euphorbia

b.      Stem tendril: it is a thin, leafless thread-like, spirally curved branch. It helps weak plat to climb. E.g. passionflower

c.     Thorn: stem modified into a hard, often straight, pointed, and woody structure. It may bear leaves, flowers in certain plants. The thorn arises in spring as axillary shoots with normal leaves and with a special bud. E.g. lemon

d.     Twiner: long slender and branched stem climbing by twisting its body around the support. Eg. Cuseuta

Climbers: A weak climbing on support by means of special structure such as hooks, leaf tendrils, stems tendrils etc.

The Leaf

They are the foliose part of the plant. It is usually green in color and helps in the manufacture of goods, transpiration, exchange of gases. The leaf is a flattened, lateral outgrowth of the stem or the branch developing from a node. It is a photosynthesis appendage of the plant, bearing chlorophyll. It manufactures food for the whole plant.


Structure of leaf:

i)                Leaf base: it is the basal part of the leaf by means of which the leaf remains attached to the node of the stem. In some cases, leaf base bears lateral outgrowths called stipules.

ii)              Petioles: It is a stalk below the lamina. It helps in the attachment of the leaf. A leaf with petiole is called petiolate and without is sessile.

iii)             Lamina: lamina is a flattened, expanded green portion of the leaf. It possesses a number of thin veins. It is the most important part of the leaf, which takes part in food production. It gives off numerous thin lateral veins which branch further to form the veinlets.

Venation of leaf: The arrangement of veins and veinlets in the leaf is called leaf venation. It is mainly classified into two types.

i)      Reticulate net-like arrangement of veins is called reticulate venation. It is the characteristic feature of dicot leaves. It is further classified into two types.

a.     Pinnate: single mid-rib with lateral veins is called pinnate.

b.     Palmate: many midribs with lateral veins arising from the petiole. It is also called multicostate reticulate venation. E.g. hibiscus, cucumber etc.


ii)    Parallel venation: the arrangement of veins is more or less parallel to each other is more or less parallel to each other. It is also classified into pinnate and palmate types.

3. Shape of leaves: the shape of lamina varies greatly in different leaves.

(a)   Linear: long, narrow
(b)   lanceolate: much longer than broad.
(c)   Round: circular leaf lamina.
(d)   ovate: broader base with narrow end.
(e)   spathulate: spoon-shaped


4. Margins of the leaf:

(a)   Serrate: sharp-toothed margin, like the teeth of a saw. E.g. Rose
(b)   Palmate: margin divided in palm-like structure.
(c)   Lobed: margin divided into many lobes. e.g. ranunculus.

5. Apex of the leaf:

(a)   Acute: sharp ending apex forming an acute angle. e.g. Mango
(b)   Obtuse: blunt or rounded apex.
(c)   Acuminate: Apex ending in long, tapering pointed end. E.g. peepal
(d)   Cuspidate: terminating in the appointment.
(e)   Euspidate: apex ending in a long, rigid.

6. Leaf Surface:
The leaf surface is of various types and can be different according to the family. Some of them are glabrous, hairy, spiny, rough etc.

7. Texture of the leaf: The textures of leaves are coriaceous, fleshy, succulent, membranous, and scarious.

8. Phyllotaxy:
Arrangement of the leaves on the stem or in the branch is called phyllotaxy. They are of 3 types,

(A)  Alternate: if the leaves are originated from each node and alternate from each other then this kind of arrangement is called alternate arrangement. E.g. Mango

(B)  Opposite: if the leaves are originated from each node and they are in an alternate position then this condition is called opposite arrangement.

a.     Superposed: if the leaves pairs at upper and lower nods are exactly in same planes.

b.     Decussate: if the pairs of leaves are lies right angle to each other.

(C)  Whorled: if more than two leaves are in the same nodes then this condition is called whorled arrangement. E.g. Nerium

Types of leaves: on the basis of a number of leaf blades, they are of two types. i.e. simple leaf and compound leaf.

a.     Simple leaf: Leaves having a single leaf blade. The leaf lamina may be whole or incised into various lobes but the incisions never touch the mid rib. E.g. Peepal

b.     Compound Leaf: The blade is divided into several segments called leaflets, e.g. rose

Types of Compound Leaf:

1.     Pinnately Compound leaf: The leaflets are borne on a central axis in two lateral rows. They may be opposite or alternate. It is further classified into
(a)   Unipinnate: A pinnately compound leaf with unbranched rachis. Leaflets arise directly on the rachis, e.g. Cassia

i) paripinnate ii) imparipinnate

(b)   Bipinnate: A pinnately compound leaf with branched rachis, leaflets arise on the secondary rachis, e.g. Acacia.
(c)   Tripinnate: A pinnately compound leaf with secondary and tertiary branches leaflets arise on the tertiary rachis, e.g. Moringa.
(d)   Decompound: Leaflets arise on the ultimate branches, e.g. Coriandrum.

Palmately compound leaf: Like the finger of a palm, the leaflets arise from a common point.

(a)   Unifoliate: A palmately compound leaf having only one leaflet, e.g. Citrus.
(b)   Bifoliate: leaf having two leaflets.
(c)   Trifoliate: Leaf has three leaflets.
(d)   Multifoliate: having more than four leaflets.


The arrangement of flowers on the floral axis Is called an inflorescence. The main supporting stalk of the inflorescence is called a peduncle and the supporting stalk of a single flower is pedicel.

Classification of Inflorescence: it is classified into two types;

Racemose or indefinite: The main grows continuously and develops on its lateral sides in acropetal succession, i.e. youngest towards the apical end and oldest towards the basal end. They are classified into the following type

a) Raceme   b)  spike     c) spikelet      d) catkin      e) Spadix     f)umbel                         g) corymb   h)compound Umbel    i) Head

-  Cymose or Determinate: The main axis shows limited growth. It is usually branched. The flower is borne in basipetal succession, i.e. oldest towards the apical end and youngest towards the base.




1.      the Main axis never terminates with floral buds.

2.      Lower flowers are mature than the upper flowers.

3.      Flower opening is centripetal. (outer mature and inner immature)

4.      the Main axis continues to grow. e.g. Mustard plant



1.      the Main axis terminates into floral buds.

2.      Upper flowers are mature than the lower flowers.

3.      Flower opening is centrifugal.

4.     Main axis checked to grow. E.g. Jasmine.




The flower is a modified shoot of an angiosperm plant, especially for sexual reproduction. The flower consist of an axis or receptacle, on which four types of floral leaves such as sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels develop one after another. The flowers develop from a bud known as a flower bud in the axil of a small leaf-like structure called a bract.

The flower has a stalk known as a pedicel, by which it is attached to the axis of a stem.

                        Fig: Flower showing parts

Some descriptive terms of flower:

Bract: a modified small leaf-like structure present at the base of flower.

Bracteole: a flower with a bract.

Ebracteate: having no bract.

Bracteolate: flower with bracteole, e.g. Adhatoda

Peadicellate: flower with pedicel.

Sessile: having no stalk.

Sub-sessile: flower with a short pedicel.

Involucre: a whorl of bracts.

Complete: having all four flora whorls, i.e. calyx, corolla, androecium, gynoecium.

Incomplete: when any one of the four floral whorls is absent.

Actinomorphic or regular: a flower which can be divided into tow equal halves by more than one longitudinal planes passing through the centre.

Zygomorphic: which flower Can be divided longitudinally into two equal halves.

Irregular: when flower cannot be divide into two equal parts by vertical plane.

Bisexual(hermaphrodite): flower with male and female reproductive organ in same plant.

Unisexual: plant with either male or female reproductive organ present.

Dimerous: flower with two or multiples of two floral organs.

Trimorals: flower with three or multiples of three floral organs.

Accessory organs: calyx and corolla are often referred to as accessory or non-essential organs.

Essential organs: androecium and gynoecium, as they are directly involved in reproduction.

Perigynous: A cup-shaped structure around the gynoecium formed by the thalamus, gynoecium which develops at the center of the cup and rest of the floral parts.

Epigynous: flower with inferior ovary when further while other floral parts are inserted, i.e. superior e.g. cucrbita

Parts of a flower:

Accessory whorl

(a)   calyx

(b)   Corolla

Essential whorl

(a)   Androecium
(b)   Gynoecium

Calyx: it is the outermost whorl of the flower. It is usually green in color and individual member of the calyx is called sepal. The sepals may either remain green form each other or fused together forming a bell shaped structure.

Caduceus: calyx fall down before the flower opens perfectly. E.g. papaver somniferous.

Decidious: the sepals fall off along with the petals at maturity after fertilization. E.g. Brassica campestris.

Persistent: The sepals persist even after the formation of fruit. It is of two types.
     Accrecent: a persistent calyx assuming a dried form. E.g. Guava

Corolla: The second whorl lying just inner to the calyx. It is composed of a number of leaf-like brightly colored petals. All the petals may remain either free from each other or fused together giving different shapes. Thus, the petals help in pollination by attracting insects.

Like calyx, the free petals are known as polypetalous and fused petals are known as gamopetalous.

Polypetalous corolla

i        Cruciform
ii      Caryophyllaceous
iii     Rosaceous
iv     Papilionaceous

Gamopetalous corolla

i        Tubular|
ii      Camepanulate
iii     Infundibuliform (funnel shaped)
iv     Rotate (wheel shaped)
v      Ligulate (strap shaped)
vi     Urceolate
vii   Hypocrateriform

(A) Androecium(stamen)

Fig: Androecium

It is the male reproductive organ of the flower. It is made up of one or more stamens. The stamens consist of
a.     Filament: it is the slender stalk of the stamen, which bears the anther at its tip. There are four pollen sac that produces a large number of pollen grains or microspores. The pollen grains are the male reproductive units.
b.      Anther: An anther with two loculus is called dithecous, while in some cases the anther has only one locule and it is called monothecous.

(B) Gynoecium (pistil):

Fig: Gynoecium

The fourth innermost whorl lying at the center of the thalamus is the female. It is composed of one or more carpels. Each pistil consists of three parts. i.e. ovary, style, and stigma.

The swollen basal part of the pistils Is known as the ovary. The ovary may have one or more locules or chambers. Each locule contains on or more ovules on placentae. The ovary gives rise to the fruit and the ovules to the seeds. The slender stalk supporting the stigma is called the style and the small rounded or lobed head of the pistil is known as the stigma.


Placentation: the arrangement of placentae and ovules on the ovary wall commonly known as placentation. They are marginal, axile, parietal, central and free central, besal, superficial.


A ripened ovary enclosing seeds is called fruit which is developing after fertilization. When only the ovary of the flower develops into the fruit, is called true fruit. The

phenomenon in which the fruit develops without fertilization is called parthenocarpy. A fruit mainly consists of two parts, i.e. pericarp and seeds.

Pericarp: it develops from the ovary wall.

Seeds: it develops from the ovule.

Types of fruit: They are of three types,

1.     Simple fruits: a single fruit develops from the ovary of a flower with or without accessory parts. They may be dry or fleshy, e.g. pyxis, poricidal.

2.      Aggregate fruits: simple fruits developing from an apocarpous pistil of a flower are collected together to form an aggregate fruit, e.g strawberry, rubus, etc.

3.      Multiple or composite fruits: It develops from the entire inflorescence, e.g. sorosis.

The seed:

The seed is a ripened ovule developed after fertilization consist of an embryo and reserve food surrounded by seed coat. The food may be stored in the cotyledons of embryo in none endospermic or in a special tissue called endosperm.

Structure of dicotyledonous seed

The seed is covered by two distinct layers of seed coats called testa and tegmen. Testa is the outer coat that is smooth thick and maybe colored. The segment is an inner coat that is thin membranous and hyaline which provides the necessary protection.

Inner to the seed coat is an embryo. Dicot embryo consists o0f a short axis with cotyledons. The cotyledons are attached laterally to the embryonal axis. The portion of the axis lying outside cotyledons and directed towards the mycropile.The cotyledon store of food materials.

Fig: structure of Dicot seed

Structure of monocotyledonous seed

A maize grain is a single seeded fruit called caryopsis. The seed coat and wall of the food are fused together to form a thin layer around the whole part. Coat surrounds endosperm and embryo. The bigger one is the endosperm and the smaller is an embryo.

Fig: structure of monocot seed

Some Dicot and monocot Families:

Family: curciferae (Brassicaceae)

Distribution: the family, includes 38 genera and 98 species, are found in Nepal. They are distributed worldwide and mainly grow in temprate and cold parts. Many species are cultivated for vegetable, oil-yielding seeds and cosmetic production.

Habit: Most of the plants are annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. A few species are small shrubs.
Root:   Usually tap and branched, taproot may also become modified like fusiform root or Napiform roots: These roots become swollen due to the storage of food.
Stem: Commonly herbaceous, erect, cylindrical, hairy, initially reduced but elongates after vegetative growth and forms floral shoot. Stem is very much condensed.
Leaf: Radical, cauline, simple, alternate, petiolate or sessile, exstipulate, hairy, Lyrate, unicostate, reticulate venation. Floral characters: Inflorescence: Racemose, generally raceme.
Flower: Ebractate, pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, bisexual, tetramerous, cruciform, hypogynous.
Calyx: Sepals-4, polysepalous, arranged in two whole 2+2, imbricate aestrivation, inferior.
Corolla: Petals- 4, polypetalous, cruciform, alternate with sepals, aestrivation valvate or imbricate.
Androecium: Stamens-6, polyandrous, arrange in two whorls, tetradynamous arrange in two whorls, tetradynamous is main characteristic of the family. Another bilobed, basifixed and introres.
Gynoecium: Bicarpellary (2 carpels), the syncarpous, ovary is superior, unilocular but becomes bilocular due to the development of a false septum, parietal placentation, style short, stigma capitates.
Fruit: Siliqua or silicula.
Floral formula: Ebr. ○ K2+2 C4 A2+2 G(2)
1. Brassica campestris (tori)
2. Brassica oleracea (Kauli)
3. Brassica rapa (Gantemula)
4. Brassica nigra (Kali tori)
5. Raphanus sativus (mula)

 Family:  Papilionaceae
Distribution: it includes more than  482  genera and  7200  species. They commonly grow in subtropical and temperate regions.  These families of  many species are cultivated as important pulses and vegetables.

Habitat: Most of the members of this family are annual, biennial or perennial herbs or climbing, rarely they are shrub and tree.
Root: branched taproot. The roots are usually with nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Rhizobium spp. Due to this character, the plants are alsocultivated to maintain soil fertility.
Stem: herbaceous or woody, erect or weak climber, cylindrical, branched, solid, green and glabrous.
Leaf: alternate or whorled, petiolate, stipulate with foliacious stipule, simple or compound, leaf lets are modified into tendril in some species, reticulatevenation.

Floral characters:
Inflorescence: usually racemose types or solitary.
Flowers: bracteates, pedicellate, zyogomorphic, complete, bisexual, usually pentamerous, hypogynous or perigynous.
Calyx: sepals-5, gamosepalopus, aestivation valvate or imbricate, sometime bell shaped.
Corolla: petals-5, polypetalous, petals unequal, aestivation imbricate, inferior.
Androecium: stamens 10, usually diadelphous (9+1), anther dithecous, basifixed and introres, inferior.
Gynoecium: carpels 1 (monocarpellary) ovary superior, unilocular with many ovules, placentation marginal, and style bent at base, flat and hairy, stigma simple. Fruit: legume or pod.
Floral formula: Br. %O K (5) C1+2+ (2) A (9) +1 G1
1. Dalbergia sissoo (Sisau)
2. Pisum sativum (Pea)
3. Cajanus cajan (Rahar)
4. Glycine max (Bhatmas)
5. Vicia faba (Bakula simi)

Family: Solanaceae
Distribution: Most of the species of the family are distributed in tropical and sub-tropical region but some are found in temperate region. it is the largest genus consisting 16 genera and 51 species are found in Nepal.
Habit: erect or climbing, herbs or shrubs or rarely soft tree.
Root: Tap root.

Stem: erect, rarely climbing or prostrate, herbaceous or woody, solid or fistular, hairy.
Leaf: cauline, alternate or opposite, petiolate or sessile, exstipulate, entire, simple, rarely pinnately divided, unicostate, reticulate venation.
Floral characters: Inflorescence: cymose.
Flower: ebracteate, pedicellate or sub-sessile, complete, actinomorphic, hypogynous.
Calyx: sepals-5, gamosepalous, campanulate sometime tubular, inferior, aestivation valvate or imbricate, green.
Corolla: petals 5, gamopetalous, campanulate, valvate or twisted aestivation. Androecium: stamens 5, free, epipetalous, alternate to petals, anther basifixed, dithecous, introres and inferior.
Gynoecium: bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, bilocular, many ovules in each locule, axile placentation with swollen placenta, style short, stigma bilobed. Fruit: berry or capsule.
Floral formula: Ebr○K(5) C(5) A5 G(2)
1. Solanum tuberosum Alu
2. Solanum melongela Bhenta
3. Lycopersicum esculentum Golvenda

Compositae ( Asteraceae)

Distribution: It is largest family of angiosperms which includes about 1000 genera and about 23000 species, and cosmopolitan in distribution.
Habit: mostly annual or perennial herbs, some are under shrubs.
Root: tap or adventitious.
Stem: erect or prostrate, rarely climbing, herbaceous, woody, solid and fistular. Leaf: radical or cauline, alternate or opposite or whorled, commonly simple, rarely compounds, serrate or dendate, acute, unicostate reticulate venation.
Floral characters: Inflorescence: head or capitulum, cyme.
Flowers: Two types of flower found in this family: - a. Disc florets b. ray florets.

A. Disc florets Flowers: bracteate, sessile, actinomorphic, complete, bisexual, pentamerous and epigynous.
Calyx: represented by 2-3 scales or by hairy or absent.
Corolla: petals 5, gamopetalous, tubular, valvate aestivation.
Androecium: stamens 5, epipetalous, filaments long, equal, anther basifixed, dithecous, introrse and syngenesious.
Gynoecium: carpels 2, syncarpous, inferior, unilocular with single basal ovules, placentation basal, style 1, stigma bifid.
Fruit: cypsela.
Floral formula: Br.
○ K pappus or Scales or absent C (5) A 5 G (2)

B. Ray florets
Flower: bracteate, sessile, zygomorphic, incomplete, unisexual, epigynous.
Calyx: represented by 2-3 scales or by hairy pappul or absent.
Corolla: petals with 3-5 teeth, gamopetalous, ligulate valvate.
Androecium: absence. Gynoecium: carpels 2, syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular with a basal ovule, placentation basal, style1, stigma bifid.
Fruit: cypsela
Floral formula: Br. %○K pappus or 2-3scales or absent C (3-5) A0 G (2)
1. Helianthus annuus suryamookhi
2. Tagetes patula sayapatri
3. Dahlia tuberose lahure phool
4. Artemisia vulgaris titepati

Liliaceae Family

Liliaceae is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots. It is also known as the ‘lily family’. Its characteristics are discussed below. Vegetative Characters

 Root: Fibrous root system.

 Stem: Erect; Liliaceae includes perennial herbs which propagate through bulbs sor rhizomes.

 Leaves: Alternate, simple; exstipulate; parallel venation.

 Floral characters
Inflorescence: Cymose- solitary; umbellate clusters.

 Flower Perianth: Indistinctive: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic; hypogynous, perianth present (K, C).

 sepal and petal; six tepals (3+3), often united tepals; valvate aestivation.

 Androecium: Six stamens in two whorls (3+3).

 Gynoecium: Syncarpous (Carpels united), tricarpellary, trilocular, superior ovary with axile placentation (Carpel towards ovule).

 Fruit: Mostly Capsule and sometimes berry.

 Seed: Endospermic seeds.

To Top